Contraception

NATURAL PLANNING

Natural planning is a method of birth control that involves abstention from sexual intercourse during the period of ovulation which is determined through observation and measurement of bodily symptoms.

Typical use failure rate: 28%

Natural family planning methods:

1. Basal body temperature charting

Identifies the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle by postovulatory increase in basal body temperature; all other days are considered fertile.

2. Calendar calculation

Predicts the fertile period by menstrual dating.

3. Cervical mucus monitoring

Identifies beginning and end of the fertile period from cervical secretions.

4. Lactational amenorrhea

Maximizes suppression of ovulation during breastfeeding; effectiveness limited to six months postpartum.

5. Symptothermal method

Based on cervical mucus monitoring; calendar calculations or basal body temperature charting monitoring provides redundancy.

BARRIER TECHNIQUE

Barrier methods of birth control are physical or chemical barriers that prevent sperm from passing through the woman’s cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes to fertilize an egg. Some methods also protect against sexually transmitted disease (STDs).

Types of barrier methods:

1. Diaphragm

The diaphragm is a small dome-shaped device made of latex or silicone that fits inside the vagina and covers the cervix. You need a prescription for it. A healthcare professional needs to do a pelvic exam to find the right size of diaphragm for you. It is always use with a spermicide. Birth control methods that need spermicides to work should only be used if you are at low risk of HIV infection.

Typical use failure rate: 12%

2. Sponge

The sponge is a doughnut-shaped device made of soft foam coated with spermicide. It is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix. It is available without a prescription. The sponge does not protect against STDs, including HIV. A male or female condom should be used with the sponge to provide STD protection if you are at risk of getting an STD. Birth control methods that need spermicides to work should only be used if you are at low risk of HIV infection.

Typical use failure rate: 12% (no past vaginal childbirth) 24% (past vaginal childbirth)

3. Cervical cap

The cervical cap is a small, thin latex or plastic dome-shaped like a thimble. It fits tightly over the cervix. You need a prescription for it. A healthcare professional needs to do a pelvic exam to find the right size for you. The cervical cap must be used with a spermicide. Birth control methods that need spermicides to work should only be used if you are at low risk of HIV infection.

Typical use failure rate:  16 % (no past vaginal childbirth) 32 % (past vaginal childbirth)

4. Condoms

Two types of condoms are available: male and female. The male condom is a thin sheath made of latex (rubber), polyurethane (plastic), or natural (animal) membrane that is worn by the man over his erect penis. Latex and polyurethane condoms provide the best available protection against many STDs, including HIV.

The female condom is a thin plastic pouch that lines the vagina. It is held in place by a closed inner ring at the cervix and an outer ring at the opening of the vagina. It can be inserted up to 8 hours before sex and provides some protection against STDs.

Both types of condoms should be used with a lubricant to prevent the condom from tearing or breaking and to reduce irritation. Latex condoms should only be used with water-based or silicone lubricants. Oil-based lubricants can weaken the latex and increase the risk that the condom will break. 

Typical use failure rate:

Male condom: 18% (spermicide further lowers this failure rate)

Female condom: 21%

5. Spermicide

These are chemicals that are put in the vagina to make sperm inactive. There are many types of spermicides: foam, gel, cream, film (thin sheets, or suppositories (solid inserts that melts after they are inserted into the vagina).

Frequent use of spermicides may increase the risk of getting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from an infected partner. Spermicides should only be used if you are at low risk of HIV infection.

Typical use failure rate:  28%

BIRTH CONTROL PILLS

The birth control pill is a pill that you have to take every day at the same time each day. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. There are many types of birth control pills. A healthcare professional can help you choose the right one for you.

If you miss a pill you need to know what to do. Read the directions that came with your pack of pills. You may also want to contact your healthcare professional.

Typical use failure rate:  9%

INTRAUTERINE DEVICE (IUD)

The Intrauterine device is a small, T-shaped, plastic device that is inserted and left inside the uterus. The IUD must be inserted and removed by a healthcare professional. There are two types of IUD available: Progesterone (Mirena) than can last for 3-5 years & Copper IUD, it lasts for as long as 10 years.

Typical use failure rate:  LNG (Progesterone) – 0.2% Copper T – 0.8%

STERILIZATION

Sterilization is a permanent method of birth control. Sterilization procedures for women are called tubal occlusion. The procedure for men is called vasectomy.

Tubal occlusion closes off the fallopian tubes. This prevents the egg from moving down the fallopian tube to the uterus and keeps the sperm from reaching the egg.

The vas deferens is one of two tubes that carry sperm from the testes. In a vasectomy, these tubes are tied, cut, clipped, or sealed to prevent the release of sperm. This prevents a woman’s egg from being fertilized with the man’s sperm.

Sterilization under UAE law is not permissible. The only exception is in cases of extreme necessity such as when a woman’s life is in danger or when a pregnancy can gravely damage her health, etc. This however should be advised by a qualified Muslim doctor and verifies by a Medical board.

Typical use failure rate:

Male:  0.15%

Female: 0.5%

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